145 Days to the Circassian Genocide 150th year Commemoration
June 1861 laws on Caucasian deportees returning to our borders.
(1)The return of Caucasian mountaineers and their families who moved to Turkey is prohibited to our Borders in the cases mentioned in items 2, 3 and 4.
(2) If the Caucasian mountaineers who have received tickets for leaves of absence, more or less prolonged releases under the guise of worshiping the coffin of Mahomet, or to travel to Constantinople and other places in Turkey, on arrival at the limits of the Ottoman Empire became subjects of the empire
(3) Mountaineers who extended their passports.
(4) Mountaineers who did not receive passports before heading to Turkey or with the names personally close to their families, but a collective passports for several families or persons.
(5) Mountaineers who before returning to the Caucasus present an overdue passport issued for an individual or with their closest family members and is not convicted of intent to take allegiance to the Ottoman Ports, may return to the Caucasus, but only if they declare that they have sedentary life at home or property. Moreover, our diplomats should precede that, in the case of wrongful testimony, they will not settle in their former places of residence and will be dealt with at the discretion of the Russian government.
(6) Those mountaineers who return from Turkey and the Caucasian Leadership finds it unsuitable for them to go back to their houses in their former residences in the province of Stavropol, will be sent to the Orenburg region, where special places applied for this purpose in accordance with the recommendation of Orenburg separate Corps Commander. On the other hand, other mountaineers that arrive to our borders without permission will be dealt with according to the Caucasian Leadership.
(7) Administration of the Orenburg region occurs in three ways:
a) Sending the mountaineers returning from Turkey via the Black Sea ports, Rostov to go in ships which travel to the Danube and the port board Kalat_evski then go by road from the Anaktap to Tasaretsina and again by sea to Samara on board a ship companies of Volga.
b) Returning deportees are sent by road through the province of Erivan, to Baku and from there sent to Samara on board the ship “Mercury and the Caucasus.”
c) Returning deportees through the border Kutaisi by road to Poti and from there to the point specified in item “a”.
d)If, in extreme cases, met need for migrants send to Orenburg in the late season, when the movement of ships along the Volga and Don stops then guide them overland to Samara individual tiyami, no more than 24 families each, according to the attached
During the following persons in the Orenburg region both water and land are assigned to them before arriving at the place of placement in the province money and feed carts (when following the land) in the amount specified in the following paragraphs.
(8)When the deportees go to the Orenburg region, whether by sea or land, assign them until reaching their places of resettlement in that region amounts of food and transport vehicles (in the case was traveling overland) defined in the following passages.
(9)To give men and women over the age of 14 years, according to the list of daily food for new recruits and ordersو for improved food, 2 kgs per person, as control center of Stavropol War I in 1859, which in money equals, during the last 24 hours In the territory beyond the Kuban 8.5 Kopeck, in the Stavropol province 4 Kopeck, and in Don Forces Ground 4.5 Kopeck, In the province of Ikatirinoslavski 5 Kopeck, In the province of Ostrechan 6.74 Kopeck, in Saratovski 5 Kopeck, and Samarskaya 4.75 Kopeck.
For the children of both sexes aged seven years amounts of unimproved food, according to the list 982. III Part IV control center of war or in 1859, which is half the previous amount. For children aged 7 years to 14 years to take the full amounts of money for food but without improved food as the same list covered 982 of the book, Part III IV Decree of war.
1) The pay for food for the Mountaineers and their families returning from Turkey via Turkey Asian ports on the Black Sea starts upon arrival at Rostov, and returning by land border, starts upon arrival at the border.
2) According to the amounts of food calculated above, food is handled manually for each family of seven days in advance.
(10)During the orientation of the deportees to land resettlement in the Orenburg region, a narrow carriage is appointed for every 2 families to reach beyond the basic set.
(11)When you send deportees to the Orenburg region in winter the , each family is paid $ 7 rubles 26 Kopeck in order to obtain short-fur coats in case the deportees did not have winter clothing (the price per coat stipulated in the 1272 page section IV Book III of the ordinance free of war. Issued in 1859, is 2 rubles and 42 Quebec), money given to mountaineers are for a particular purpose.
If the family consist of two or three 4 rubles and 82 Kopeck are given to them.
(12)To accompany each batch of immigrants from points of departure to the places assigned to them by Permanent placement in the Orenburg region, a trustworthy and competent police officer or a noncommissioned officer is designated, of the duty of supervision to put order in the party during the journey, and on-site and promote consequence as appropriate, through local authorities, so that they will continue non-stop. He will also be handed over amounts of money to feed and for other use according to 9 and 10 rules.
(13)Pay to a policeman or officer class facilities for a total of 15 Kopeck daily sums allocated for food over a period accompanies a return depending on the number of days, in addition to the orientation when granting land amounts to the basic horse for a round trip.
(14)In order to prevent the settlers from any major disturbances during the journey, shoots, willful deviation of the route, an armed guard Shall be appointed, depending on need, from 5 to 10 people per party, which accompanies the party from one station to another or from one stage to another, and will be scheduled depending on the way.
(15)For more security at all times, settlers are prohibited from carrying weapons, and are confiscated on the land border or at those points on which the settlers will receive the money from the Treasury fodder. Weapons are allowed to be sold by the mountaineers themselves, or with the assistance of local authorities.
(16)Deportees will be distributed to spend nights and days either in Mobile camps near villages, or villages in the homes and barns of our population where several families stay together, while some people from those villages wearing special uniforms help guards escort and control the actions of deportees for the duration of their stay in that place. The police or officer at the facilities is imperative to spend the night and day, watching over to protect the deportees from any possible harassment by the population during their stay Under the huge responsibility of the latter.
(17)In the event of illness of one of the deportees and to prevent any delay, the sick is to be put in a military clinic or hospital, taking into account:
a) not to keep the patient in the villages, but to take him to the nearest clinic or hospital.
b) If a family member such as the father, mother daughter or son, if young, or a sister, daughter, niece or nephew, his family shall remain with him until he recovers, and to give them the duration of their stay as provided by Article 9 of the amounts of food in addition to 1 rubles and 20 kopeck per month in order to rent a house, by local authorities, if not in the open housing.
c) When the patient is cured he shall travel back with his family, according to specified stages while maintaining the provision of food under item 9, in addition to the right to obtain one horse from the population as a mean of transportation.
d) In the event if the patient died of the family that remained with him, after having the last protocol of the deceased to go immediately to the place specified abiding with the laws of the item (c).
e) Funds are requested for the maintenance of the patient in the clinic or the military hospital, as well as to his family to ensure food and essentials, when moving on from local authorities at the closest government Council.
(18)Upon the arrival of the deportees to Samara, they are handed over immediately to the military leadership of the border communities. And the General Command of the Orenburg region and communications will receive a notification in advance on the groups movement to Samara, conducting the necessary arrangements for those groups going to Samara and setting them with accommodation while maintaining article 5 above. And it is also the responsibility of the General Command of the territory to support in the resettlement of evacuees sites designated, as well as the facilities and compensations and acquisitions the future of the deportees to agricultural land.
(19)All costs of administration of migrants from the Caucasus in the Orenburg region, as well as their placement and in the province are on the national treasury.
Early. Chief of Staff of the Caucasian Army, Lieutenant General K a p p a c.
RGVIA, f. 38, op. 30/286, sec. 869, No. 4, p. 182-187.
146 Days to the Circassian Genocide 150th year Commemoration
6 June 1861 – The Caucasian Army Commander General of the Ministry of War on the need of mountaineers returning from Turkey to settle “in the more remote areas of the Caucasus
A large part of our emigrants from the northern Caucasus, who went to Turkey at various times and in large numbers, as expected, been deceived and disillusioned with a comfortable life under the care of Turkey, while in the recent period they and persistently searching for an opportunity to return Home. Since they all without exception, traveled to Turkey under the pretext of traveling to Mecca to worship the shrine of Muhammad, and we granted them passports for a long-term leave, it was not possible to obstruct that, at least for those who have not been able in one way or another to demonstrate their intention to enter into actual Turkish dependence,
* Obstructing their return home through legal systems.
Indeed, as I was informed by our envoy and Ottoman Commissioner at the port, our mission in Constantinople had no legal basis for refusing to grant visas to our emigrants whose passports were not extended, and they had the right to request a pass back to their homeland as nationals of the Russian empire. In the same way 50 Nogai families arrived from Turkey to the Caucasus at the present time, and more is expected to arrive soon, but the resettlement of those displaced, who have been deprived of most of their property when they travelled to Turkey, means an increase in voluntary looting in an area where the return of peace needs lot of efforts and sacrifices. So His Excellency the Field Marshall suggested sending those to live in Russia, where they could form communities within Russian population that are not harmful to the whole territory. This issue is of the highest scores to calm the Caucasus; I have the honor to humbly request Your Excellency to the highest state giving assent of the Emperor:
1 – Send the emigrants returning home from the Black Sea, across the Gulf of Kerch, rather than bring them to Taman or other Caucasian Ports, to go directly to the Don Forces land as far as possible from the Caucasus.
2 – Send the migrants through land tobeyond the Caucasian Lands from the Turkish border, from Krasnopoul and other border points to be transferred to Baku and from there by sea to Astrakhan.
Pending resolution of this petition, I informed General Count Evdokimov to resettle the families returning home at the Black Sea in the former Tatar Villages.
One of the reasons for the common aspiration of the mountaineers to return is spreading between them in Turkey, a rumor that the Russian government gives money and medals to all those returning. So I sent a request to Prince Lobanov Rostov to announce through our councils to all of our mountaineers, who will be arriving for reviewing their passports, that they will not be returning to their original locations, and must go into exile in Russia.
RGVIA, f. -38, Op. 30/286, sec. 869, No. 4, p. 22-24,
147 Days to the Circassian Genocide 150th year Commemoration
“Left by the leadership in Anapa, Panchulidze carried out the special operation on Sujouk-Kala road in order to punish the Natokhawaj. Zolotnitsky had invaded them and destroyed about the 40 villages …”
“The Shabsough were exposed the same fate. Where the Cossack Commander in the 18th of June, accompanied by 5 thousand of the 22nd Cossack Cavalry Regiment pertaining to cross the Kuban River and moved to beyond the Psekups River, and destroyed within five days 18 Shabsough districts”.
148 Days to the Circassian Genocide 150th year Commemoration
25 September1862 – From the Headquarters of Kuban Region Forces to the Commander of the District of Natokhayski, General Babich on the deportation of 18 Shabsough families to Turkey at the expense of the Treasury by the ship that belongs to merchant Drebyazgin. The city of Stavropol
The Commander of the Mountainous Section of the Headquarters of Kuban Forces , Captain Bekarski on the presence of 18 Shabsough families willing to emigrate to Turkey in the current year in the Fort of Konsantinoveskoya.
Based on that, I solicit from your Excellency to send these families to Taman, where they will be transferred by a special order on board a ship brought for this purpose, the merchant Yoghor Drebyazgin to one of the ports of the Turkish Empire, which the mentioned inhabitants want to reach, with the paying of their transporting expense by the Treasury, as well as to bring a detailed list of these families to the Headquarters of Kuban Forces in order to calculate the amount required for transportation.
149 Days to the Circassian Genocide 150th year Commemoration
June 17, 1861 – Report of Kabardians Chief District to the Chief of the Terek region, on forbidding Kabardians returning from Turkey from living in areas of the province. If the Kabardians think –by looking at other examples of mountaineers who moved to Turkey-, to return to homeland, and moreover, in large numbers ,then the implementation of the planned procedure in Kabarda will be extremely difficult , because according to my knowledge, the children of Turkish Kabardians would rather hold weapons in their hands and form an open resistance than to an unconditional surrender and voluntary departure to Russia, which they see as a high degree of punishment.
It is therefore necessary that Kabardians returning from Turkey do not reach home and are arrested when trying to enter our borders. And it was a good act to send me a list of deportees to be able to determine which of them can be settled in their places of prior residence and who must be exiled inside Russia.
Central State Archive of the GRA, p. 12, Op, 5, 20, p. 46-47.
150 Days to the Circassian Genocide 150th Year Commemoration
1st of June, 1864 – An article in the English, the Times Newspaper, on the large number of deaths among the deported Mountaineers in Turkey, and (the means that the Russian Government followed to subjugate the Caucasus):
The Times Newspaper reported:
Documents submitted to the British House of Commons, concerning the deportation of Circassians, the tragic circulated rumors among the public, on this issue, but the matter that lacks precision is the numbers of migrants; and estimates of the Foreign Ministry’s Correspondents, between 300 thousand and 800 thousand, and the Russian government announced in mid-May about 100 thousand, and Lord Napier stressed, after meeting Prince *(Gorchakov), that the number of deported Caucasians in Turkey reaches to 150 thousand people.
The formal details of this case, are more of sorrow of those that come to us through the rumors, the mortality numbers have worsened terribly in Trabzon, and our Consul writes that serious panic has effected the city, and everyone is rushing to leave the city, one of three doctors in the city, became victim of typhus, the other doctor, most of his time is dedicated to work in the quarantine, and does not have the capacity to assist the population. As a result of these circumstances, from first of December to mid of February 3500 people, had perished, including 3000 of the immigrants and 471 of Turks.
At the time, Circassians arriving to Trabzon were no more than 25 thousand, and the consul in his report dated May, 19, that immigrants are still arriving, and the mortality rate in the city between 120 to 150 people a day. The case in Samson is similar to the case of Trabzon, there were 40 thousand people who came to the city, the disease claimed five hundred of them in two days, then scared bakers closed down, the city has suffered for several days of scarcity of bread, which almost lead to the rebellion, all of this happened before the onset of heat; what can be expected to happen later on! We can not hold the Ottoman Government alone, responsible for this tragic situation, which has not carry out the necessary arrangements to receive the deportees, but also the behavior of those, makes it easy to spread the infection. And their political map doesn’t not convey optimism of their relationships, when they were in the Caucasus, which there was no political relations between the tribes of the north and the other tribes, and they are unable to forget the tribal disputes, not to mention the solidarity of the public for their common interest, and those who remained on the rebellion, they hope that an imminent war between the Europeans and Russia would erupt.
Sir Henry Belfor had presented to Her Majesty the **(Queen) Empress of Britain, a letter that was sent to her, this poor people that begins counting the cruel methods (?), that the Russian government had followed over the last eight years, for the intention to subdue the Caucasus (their homeland since the beginning of time). And how consistently, they fought for their independence, sacrificing their lives and whatever they own.
Since the beginning of deportation, the Russians tried to mitigate its horrors, the Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich had secured Immigrants, with government and commercial ships in the Black Sea, and opened the Caucasus coast for ships of all nationalities, but when examining the reasons for migration, the available documents should compel us to a true blame (?), due to the excessive cruelty. Here is what Lord Napier writes, from Saint Petersburg on date 23, May: “It seems evident to observers, that the Russian government decided long ago, to expel some of the tribes from the Caucasus, at any price, therefore, it has over the two years conducting the following manner: It will push the line of Cossacks’ forts and settlements towards the mountains, then will expel the free Caucasian population towards the coast, and the expulsion of the rebel tribes is a usual policy of Russia. ”
Persians and Babylonians as well, had done that in the past. However, and in fact, Russia had given the Circassians the Choice between being deported to Turkey, or the resettlement on the Kuban.
Also, the Emperor personally presented the offer to them last year. Some have preferred the second option, and they are now living quietly on the Kuban.
It is not surprising that most of them choose to live under the rule of the Mohammedan state, which has always supported the people of her faith in their struggle against Russia. Deportation to the Kuban will bring in fact, submission to the laws of Russia, not to mention the military service.
The British Consul in Sokhumi*** (Kala), G. Dixon, wrote that the physical suffering of the deportees, will be tougher with their homesickness. And provides a reality of the harshness of the Russians, and he doesn’t think that it is exceptional, (?) they did not see the special (?), a village had surrendered to the Russians, and those (the Russians) killed one hundred of the population, including children and women.
** Queen Victoria of Great Britain 1819-1901.
*** Sokhum (Kala), Modern Sokhumi.
St. Petersburg Gazette, 1864. June 1. Number 124.